Stephen Smith's Blog

Musings on Machine Learning…

Posts Tagged ‘linux

LinuxFest Northwest 2019

leave a comment »

Introduction

2019 is the 50th anniversary of Unix and the 25th anniversary of Linux. Last weekend, I attended the 20th LinuxFest Northwest 2019 show in Bellingham at the Bellingham Technical Conference. A great celebration with over 1200 attendees and 84 speakers. Most of the main Linux distributions were represented along with many hardware, software and service companies associated with Linux.

I attended many great presentations and learned quite a lot. In this article, I’ll give a quick survey of what I got out of the conference. In each time slot there was typically ten talks to choose from and I chose the one that interested me the most. I tended to go to the security and overview presentations.

Computers are Broken

The first presentation I went to was “Computers are Broken (and we’re all going to die)” by Bryan Lunduke. This presentation laid out the problems with the continued increase in the complexity of all software. How this is slowing down current development, since programming teams need to be much larger and understanding what is already there is so difficult. He gave his presentation running Windows for Workgroups 3.11 and Powerpoint 4. His point was he can do everything he needs with this, but with way less RAM, disk space and processing power. Lots of arguments on how software gets into everything and how hard it is to test, it is getting quite dangerous. Just look at Boeing’s problems with the 737 Max.

50 Years of Unix

Next I went to Maddog’s presentation on “50 Years of Unix, the Internet and more”. Maddog has been around Unix the whole time and had a lot of great stories from the history of Unix, Linux and computers. He spent most of his career at DEC, but has done many other things along the way.

Freedom, Security and Privacy

Then I went to Kyle Rankin’s talk, which started with a slide on Oxford commas and why there is only one comma in the title of his presentation. The Linux community has some very paranoid people and maintaining security and privacy are major themes of the conference. One of the most hated items by the Linux community is the UEFI BIOS and how it gives corporations and governments backdoors into everyone’s computers. If you can, get a computer with a CoreBoot BIOS which is open source and lacks all these security problems. One claim is that security in Linux is better because there are so many eyes on it, but he makes the point that unless they are the right eyes, you don’t really gain anything. Getting the best security researchers to test and analyse Linux remains a challenge. Also people tend to be a bit complacent on where they get their software, even if it’s open source, they don’t build it themselves, leaving room for bad things to be inserted.

Early Technology and Ideas for the Future

Jeff Fitzmaurice gave a presentation that looked at some examples from the history of science and how various theoretical breakthroughs led to technological developments. Then there was speculation on what developments in Science happening now, will lead to future technological developments. We discussed AI, materials science, quantum computing among others.

Ubuntu 19.04+

I went to Simon Quigley’s presentation on Ubuntu. Mostly because I use Ubuntu, both on this laptop and on my NVidia Jetson Nano. This talk covered what is new in 19.04 (Disco Dingo) and how work is going towards 19.10 (note the version numbers are year.month of the release target). I’ve been running the LTS (long term support) version and I was surprised to find out they only do a LTS every two years, so when I got home, I changed my configuration to install any new released version. It was interesting on how they need to get open source contributors to commit to the five year support commitment of the LTS.

People were present that work on all the derivatives like Kubuntu and Lubuntu. Most of the work they do actually goes in the upstream Debian release, which benefits even more people.

The Fight for a Secure Linux Bios

David Spring gave this presentation on all the evils of UEFI and why we need CoreBoot so badly. He has a lot of stories on the evils done by the NSA, including causing the Deepwater Horizon disaster. When the NSA release the second version of Stuxnet to attack the Iranian nuclear program, it got away on them. The oil industry uses a lot of the same Siemens equipment and got infected. Before the disaster, Deepwater Horizons monitoring computers were all down, because of the NSA and Stuxnet. If not for the NSA, they would have detected the problem and resolved it without the disaster. For all the propaganda on Chinese and Russian hacking, the NSA employees 100 hackers for every single Chinese one. Their budget is huge.

Past, Present and Future of Blockchain

My friend Clive Boulton (from the GWT days) gave this presentation on the commercial uses of blockchain. This had nothing to do with cryptocurrencies and was on using the algorithms to secure and enable commercial transactions without third party intermediaries. The presentation covered a number of frameworks like Hyperledger and Openchain that enable blockchain for application developers.

Zero Knowledge Architecture

M4dz’s presentation showed how to limit access to application data, for instance to stop insurance companies seeing your medical records. Zero knowledge protocols find ways to tell if you have knowledge without getting that knowledge. For instance if you want to know if someone can access a room, you can watch them open the door, you don’t need to get a copy of the key. Similarly you can watch a service use a password, without giving you the password. These protocols are quite difficult, especially when you get into key recovery procedures, but ultimately if these gain traction we will all get better privacy.

Linux Gaming – the Dark Ages, Today and Beyond…

Ray Shimko’s presentation covered the state of Linux gaming from all the old console emulators to native ports of games where the source code has been released, to better packaging of all the layers required to run Windows games (right version of Wine, etc.). There are a lot of games on Linux now, but sadly the newest hot releases lag quite a while before showing up.

One interesting story is how the emulator contributors are trying to deal with games like “Duck Hunt”. Duck Hunt came with a gun, you pointed at the TV to shoot the ducks. The way this worked was that when you pressed the trigger, the game would flash the screen white. One a CRT this meant the refresh would scan down the screen in 1/60th of a second. A sensor in the gun would record when it saw white and by measuring the time difference, the software would know where the gun was pointing. The problem is that modern screens don’t work that way, so this whole aiming technique doesn’t work. Evidently a workaround is forthcoming.

Q&A

The conference ended with a Q&A session hosted by Maddog, Kyle Rankin and Simon Quigley. The audience could ask whatever they wanted and perhaps got an answer or perhaps got a story. Lots of why doesn’t Linux do X and how can I contribute to Y.

Summary

Hard to believe Linux is 25 years old all ready. This is a great show and in the spirit of free software the show is also free to attend. Lots of interesting discussion and its refreshing to see software developing where users really want, rather than what you see under various corporate agendas.

When you buy a new computer, make sure it uses Coreboot BIOS and not UEFI.

 

Advertisements

Written by smist08

April 30, 2019 at 7:01 pm

Posted in Life

Tagged with , , , ,

Refurbishing an Old Laptop

with one comment

Introduction

My wife typically used an HP laptop running Windows 10. This laptop is probably about three years old now. Unfortunately she dropped it off the bed onto a cement floor (she claims one of the dogs pushed it off the bed, but I’m suspicious). She actually broke its fall with her foot which is very bruised now, and then it hit the floor after her foot. The laptop then stopped working. She took the laptop to a coffee shop and spilled coffee on it. This didn’t help. She then gave it to me to see if I could get it working. I took it apart to see if it was just a matter of some wires coming loose. Sadly this wasn’t the case. This blog article recounts my attempts to disassemble and repair the laptop, which I successfully accomplished. I’m writing this article on said laptop, while my wife now uses my MacBook Air.

Diagnosing the Problem

On bootup the laptop displayed a text message prompt saying no boot device present. To me this meant that the screen and processor were still working and that the likely problem was the hard drive. After all the harddrive is mechanical with moving parts and likely to be damaged by a shock such as hitting the floor (or a foot). So my first thought was to take it apart and ensure the cables connecting the harddrive were in place.

Opening the Case

It turns out an HP laptop is held together by a lot of screws and many of the screws are hidden behind plastic plugs, the laptop’s feet and various other sneaky bits of plastic. Plus there is a bead of glue around the case that needed to be broken. My first attempt to remove all the screws didn’t allow me inside. Fortunately for doing DIY repairs, there is YouTube. Doing a quick search revealed lots of videos on opening HP laptops and showed a lot of complaining about how HP makes this unnecessarily complex. Anyway watching one of the videos revealed to me where to look for the additional screws (behind some nondescript covers) and allowed me to get the case open.

I removed the hard drive, made sure all the cables were snug and put it back together. And the same result. So I assumed the harddrive was either physically broken or the boot sectors had somehow been erased. So I thought I may as well try installing Ubuntu Linux and repurpose the laptop as a Linux machine. After all running Windows 10, the laptop has been getting slower and slower, so giving up on Windows 10 seemed like a good idea.

Installing Ubuntu Linux

I downloaded an ISO image of Ubuntu Linux for desktop computers. And then installed this onto a USB key to make a bootable USB with Linux. I did this on a really old AMD Windows 7 laptop. Its slow but it’s always been reliable and since I’ve uninstalled nearly everything from it, it works fairly well. Anyway Ubuntu has really good instructions on how to do this at their website. You just download the ISO image and then use the Rufus utility program to copy it to the USB making it bootable.

I then put it in the damaged laptop and booted it up. At this point I could run Ubuntu Linux from the USB or run the Ubuntu installation program. That both of these worked gave me more confidence that the only problem was the laptop’s hard drive. Anyway I went ahead and tried to install Ubuntu Linux, which goes quite a long way before it finally tries to format the hard drive. This failed. So I concluded the harddrive was physically damaged and useless.

Fortunately I have a couple of other laptop hard drives lying around from even older laptops which I could try. The first one I tried didn’t work, so I guess that one is toast as well. But the second one I tried worked. The Ubuntu installation program was able to format the drive and the installation finished successfully. My impression is that installing Linux is now even easier than installing Windows. It didn’t ask too many questions. The screens were simple and easy to understand.

Now I had the laptop restored. Even using the old harddrive, my impression is that the laptop is much faster now running Ubuntu. Of course now I don’t need to run all that Windows stuff that slows computers down so much (like Windows Defender).

Adding Programs

Ubuntu, like Raspbian is based on Debian Linux so anything I’ve blogged about installing things on my Raspberry also works pretty much the same. Plus Ubuntu comes with Firefox, LibreOffice and a number of other useful programs already installed. I was able to quickly add Chrome, Macchanger, Gimp and Tensorflow. For amateur radio there is a program called Chirp that can be used to program most radios. I never got Chirp to talk to my radio from my MacBook due to supposed driver incompatibilities with the USB to serial cable. But when I added Chirp to Ubuntu, it just worked and communicated with my radio no problem, first try.

With my MacBook I use an external drive to hold my photo library since its so large. I use one that is formatted for the MacOS filesystem, so I wasn’t sure it would work connected to Ubuntu, but when I plugged it in, Ubuntu recognized it and automatically mounted it with no problems. I imagine this is since both operating systems are Unix based and their file systems are compatible. I’ve never tried to make this work with Windows, because the instructions are rather daunting and require quite a bit of extra software to be installed.

Summary

The end result of all this is that I have a new refurbished laptop which I’m now using as my regular laptop running Ubuntu Linux. My wife is happily continuing writing her novels on the MacBook Air. And at least for now we don’t need to buy a new laptop. Perhaps we will down the road if we see a really good deal, but it isn’t an emergency. I never feel rushed to buy a new computer since they keep getting better all the time, plus prices are bit high right now because of the run on graphics cards by people doing BitCoin mining. Might be nice to let this run its course first.

 

Written by smist08

February 1, 2018 at 9:48 pm

Posted in Life

Tagged with , , ,

The Road to TensorFlow – Part 1 Linux

with 12 comments

Introduction

There have been some remarkable advancements in Artificial Intelligence type algorithms lately. I blogged on this a little while ago here. Whether its computers reading hand-writing, understanding speech, driving cars or winning at games like Go, there seems to be a continual flood of stories of new amazing accomplishments. I thought I’d spend a bit of time getting to know how this was all coming about by doing a bit of reading and playing with the various technologies.

I wanted to play with Neural Network technology, so thought the Google TensorFlow open source toolkit would be a good place to start. This led me down the road to quite a few new (to me) technologies. So I thought I’d write a few blog posts on my road to getting some working TensorFlow programs. This might take quite a few articles covering Linux, Python, Python libraries like Pandas, Stock Market technical analysis, and then TensorFlow.

Linux

The first obstacle I ran into was that TensorFlow had no install image for Windows, after a bit of Googling, I found you need to run it on MacOS or Linux. I haven’t played with Linux in a few years and I’d been meaning to give it a try.

I happened to have just read about a web site osboxes.org that provides VirtualBox and VMWare images of all sorts of versions of Linux all ready to go. So I thought I’d give this a try. I downloaded and installed VirtualBox and downloaded a copy of 64Bit Ubuntu Linux. Since I didn’t choose anything special I got Canonical’s Unity Desktop. Since I was trying new things, I figured oh well, lets get going.

Things went pretty well at first, I figured out how to install things on Ubuntu which uses APT (Advanced Packaging Tool) which is a command line utility to install things into Ubuntu Linux. This worked pretty well and the only problems I had were particular to installing Python which I’ll talk about when I get to Python. I got TensorFlow installed and was able to complete the tutorial, I got the IDLE3 IDE for Python going and all seemed good and I felt I was making good progress.

Then Ubuntu installed an Ubuntu update for me (which like Windows is run automatically by default). This updated many packages on my virtual image. And in the process broke the Unity desktop. Now the desktop wouldn’t come up and all I could do was run a single terminal window. So at least I could get my work off the machine. I Googled the problem and many people had it, but none of the solutions worked for me and I couldn’t resolve the problem. I don’t know if its just that Unity is finicky and buggy or if it’s a problem with running in a VirtualBox VM. Perhaps something with video drivers, who knows.

Anyway I figured to heck with Ubuntu and switched to Red Hat’s Fedora Linux. I chose a standard simple Gnome desktop and swore to never touch Unity again. I also realized that now I’m retired, I’m not a commercial user, so I can freely use VMWare, so I also switched to VMWare since I wondered if my previous problem was caused by VirtualBox. Anyway installing TensorFlow on Fedora seemed to be quite difficult. The dependencies in the TensorFlow install assume the packages that Ubuntu installs by default and apparently these are quite different that Fedora. So after madly installing things that I didn’t really think were necessary (like the Gnu Fortran compiler), I gave up on Fedora.

So I went back to osboxes.org and downloaded an Ubuntu image with the Gnome desktop. This then has been working great. I got everything re-installed quite quickly and was back to being productive. I like Gnome much better than Unity and I haven’t had any problems. Similarly, I think VMWare works a bit better than VirtalBox and I think I get a bit better performance in this configuration.

I have Python along with all the Python scientific and numerical computing libraries working. I have TensorFlow working. I spend most of my time in Terminal windows and the IDLE3 IDE, but occasionally use FireFox and some of the other programs pre-installed with the distribution.

gnome

I’m greatly enjoying working with Linux again, and I’m considering replacing my currently broken desktop computer with something inexpensive natively running Linux. I haven’t really enjoyed the direction Windows has taken after Windows 7 and I’m thinking of perhaps doing most of my computing on Linux and MacOS.

Summary

I am enjoying using Linux again. In spite of my initial problems with Ubuntu’s Unity Desktop and then with Fedora (running TensorFlow). Now that I have a good system that seems to be stable and working well I’m pretty happy with it. I’m also glad to be free of things like App stores and its nice to feel in control of my environment when running Linux. Anyway this was the small first step to TensorFlow.

Written by smist08

August 23, 2016 at 11:40 pm

Linux is Everywhere

with 4 comments

Introduction

It’s been a long running joke that at the beginning of each year, probably for the last twenty years, someone prognosticates that this will be the year of Linux. Often this is prefaced by the year of the Linux desktop or the year of the Linux server. But somehow in spite of all the hype, most desktops are still Windows as are a good number of servers.

I don’t really want to prognosticate that this will necessarily be the year of anything in particular, but recently it appears that everywhere I turn, I see Linux.

Telikin

My wife spent November and December in Arizona with her parents who are snowbirds, since I had quite a bit of business travel going on. Since she was there for 2 months she was determined to get her parents on-line. So they could Google things themselves rather than phoning her, so they could e-mail and use Facebook. So off they went and bought a shiny new Lenovo Windows 8 laptop with a touch screen and all the bells and whistles. This turned out to be quite frustrating and they had all sorts of learning and usage problems. The big one being that the touch interface didn’t work well. So they returned it and got a large screen Windows 7 laptop, which my wife thought would be easier since she knew it better and there was no touch stuff. Didn’t go so well. Then they saw an ad for a Telikin PC which was a special purpose PC for seniors with a touch screen as well as a mouse, with special easy to use software which included senior friendly features like large fonts and large graphics.

Telikin-TLMS18T3202W-PC

This actually worked out quite well. They could do e-mails, browse the web, print, upload photos from their camera and use Facebook. They then asked me about recording audio, so I got a freeware program and went to install it. I imagined that the senior friendly software was just a shell over Windows, and I just needed to figure out how to exit that or run a CMD prompt. No luck. I then Googled the computer and to my surprise found out it was powered by Linux! Apparently Linux is making it into the Desktop in a number of special purpose PCs. I then had to point them to a web site that allowed you to make audio recordings and away they went. Further they seem to be able to keep using it now that they are on their own again, since we returned home.

Android

Of course I couldn’t write an article about Linux taking over without mentioning Google’s Android operating system for phones and tablets. Last September, Google announced that 500 million Android devices have now been activated. That’s an amazing number. Basically Android is proving to be the market leader in both smart phones and tablets. Samsung has experienced tremendous growth with their Android devices.

ChromeOS

For laptops, Google is promoting their ChromeOS which is a minimal Linux based computer that is more oriented being a web browser. Surprisingly ChromeOS based laptops have topped the Amazon best seller lists for laptops in recent months. These are special purpose devices, but are gaining quite a bit of traction.

Tizen

Tizen is another open source Linux based smart phone operating system. This is being promoted as even more open than Android. It is being picked up by several Chinese phone manufacturers as well Samsung has announced they will be releasing Tizen based phones. Partly this is in reaction to Google shipping Google branded devices in competition to their hardware partners.

Ubuntu

Ubuntu has been a leading Linux distribution that has gained quite a bit of traction on the desktop. It is a full distribution of Linux and not one of the special purpose limited sets. Now Ubuntu is developing a smart phone version of their Linux version. The idea is that when the phone is mobile it runs a limited set of programs in a manner similar to Android or Tizen, but when you dock the phone and it’s connected to a monitor, keyboard and mouse, then you get the full Ubuntu distribution. This way your phone is also your laptop and tablet.

This is rather an interesting idea that the phone is your computing core with all your files and programs on it. Then depending on the hardware, connectivity and power you get the subset that is appropriate for that usage.

Raspberry Pi

The Raspberry Pi is a $25 computer that is oriented to hobbyists. It is based on the ARM CPU and runs Linux. The Raspberry Pi doesn’t even come in a box. But since it just recently went on sale, it’s already sold 1 million units. This has certainly woken up the home hardware hobby industry and I suspect the core design of this will end up in many other devices.

800px-RaspberryPi

Everything Else

At the recent CES show, there seemed to be a plethora of special purpose Linux based appliances from intelligent fridges to Linux being the operating system for your car. I don’t know how many of these will be successful but it appears that nearly everything is getting a CPU, memory and connectivity. Whether these have any lasting value or are short term gimmicks is yet to be seen.

Programming

As a programmer we want all our programs to run in as many places as possible. These days the market has become quite fragmented between Windows, MacOS, iOS and then all the Linuxes. One way to program for all these devices is to use HTML5/JavaScript since they all have Internet connectivity and good browsers like Firefox or Chrome. Another way is to use Java which runs on all these as well. For Windows, Linux and MacOS you can also use C/C++ and just isolate the operating system dependent parts in separate modules to handle differences in things like mutexes and file locking. Unfortunately besides using HTML5/JavaScript the preferred native way to create User Interfaces is completely different on all of these and tends to lead to very different ways of doing things.

Summary

It seems that Linux has been making inroads slowly in all sorts of places. Now all of a sudden it seems to be everywhere. I think this is a great tribute to what can be accomplished with open source software and how a great many profitable ventures can be based on it.

Written by smist08

January 19, 2013 at 5:55 pm